Albert C. Barnes Art and Education Manuscripts,
circa 1924-1947

A Guide



The Barnes Foundation Archives

300 North Latch's Lane
Merion, PA, 19066
Telephone: (215) 278-7280
Email: archives@barnesfoundation.org

Funding provided by the
National Endowment for the Humanities
and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

© 2006 The Barnes Foundation


Collection Summary

Repository: The Barnes Foundation
Creator: Albert C. (Coombs) Barnes, 1872–1951
Title: Albert C. Barnes Art and Education Manuscripts
Dates: circa 1924-1947
Extent: 5 linear feet
Abstract: This collection consists of manuscript, typescript, carbon copy, and printed text drafts, galley proofs, and page proofs for the first two editions of Art and Education, published by the Barnes Foundation Press.
Code: AED
Language: This collection is in English.

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

[Description of item], [date]. Albert C. Barnes Art and Education Manuscripts. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania. Reprinted with permission.

Acquisition Information

These records were part of a writings file housed in the Barnes Foundation’s administration building storage area.

Processed By

Adrienne Pruitt. Finding aid written by Adrienne Pruitt, May 2006.

Access Restrictions

The Barnes Foundation Archives is currently closed for research while staff complete grant-funded projects to process the collection. Please contact the Archives for information on access and research.

Use Restrictions

The Barnes Foundation's writings files are the physical property of the Barnes Foundation Archives. The Foundation holds literary rights only for material created by staff of the Foundation and material given to the Foundation with such rights specifically assigned. For all other material, literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. Researchers are responsible for obtaining permission from rights holders for publication and for other purposes where stated.

Related Material

Administration, Presidents' Files, Albert C. Barnes, Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.
Administration, Central File Correspondence, 1953–1954. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.


Historical Note

Dr. Albert C. Barnes established the Barnes Foundation in 1922 to “promote the advancement of education and the appreciation of the fine arts.” From 1925 to 1926, the Foundation published the Journal of The Barnes Foundation to “put before the public a tried and tested method for education in art, and an outline of what such education should be.” It was also admittedly “an instrument both of construction and of controversy” in which Dr. Barnes and his colleagues attacked the “hollow pretensions,” “facile emotionalism,” and “complacent mediocrity” prevalent at other institutions of art education. Foundation employees Laurence Buermeyer, Violette de Mazia, Mary Mullen, and Thomas Munro all contributed essays to the Journal, as did Dr. Barnes, the philosopher John Dewey, and art dealer Paul Guillaume. The Journal ceased publication in April 1926. However, the demand for out-of-print issues was so great that by fall of 1926 Dr. Barnes determined to republish most of the essays in book form. Harcourt Brace & Company declined the project, ostensibly on the grounds that it was not commercially viable. Dr. Barnes, who had offered to pay the publication costs, believed their refusal was due to the controversial nature of some of the essays. Art and Education was privately published by the Barnes Foundation Press in March 1929. Most of the essays included had been previously published in the Journal of The Barnes Foundation or in Barnes Foundation Press books such as The Art in Painting, with a few essays reprinted with permission from outside journals. The collection was used as a textbook in the Foundation’s classes and sold steadily.

The second edition of Art and Education was published in April 1947. In the nearly twenty years between editions, Dr. Barnes had coauthored books on the French Primitives, Henri Matisse, Renoir, and Cézanne, and produced a revised third edition of The Art in Painting. The new edition of Art and Education integrated these areas of research, while outdated essays were eliminated. Essays by Thomas Munro and Paul Guillaume, who had both ended their involvement with the Foundation, were removed from the second edition. A foreword by John Dewey, reprinted from The Art of Renoir, was added, and two completely new articles by Dr. Barnes and Violette de Mazia were introduced. As the general condition of art education had gradually improved, the long polemical section excoriating its worst offenders was drastically abridged. The third edition largely preserved this arrangement when it was published in 1954, three years after Dr. Barnes’s death. Director of Education Violette de Mazia rewrote and adapted two previously published essays—a 1942 House and Garden piece regarding the Barnes Foundation’s educational program, and a comparison of Matisse and Stravinsky from The Art of Henri-Matisse—and added a new preface but otherwise left the content unchanged. Now out of print, Art and Education provides valuable evidence of the development and evolution of an institution over time.

Sources
Dewey, John, Albert C. Barnes, Laurence Buermeyer, Thomas Munro, Paul Guillaume, Mary Mullen, and Violette de Mazia. Art and Education. Merion, Pennsylvania: The Barnes Foundation Press, 1929.
Dewey, John, Albert C. Barnes, Laurence Buermeyer, Mary Mullen, and Violette de Mazia. Art and Education. 2nd ed. Merion, Pa: The Barnes Foundation Press, 1947.
——. Art and Education. 3rd ed. Merion, Pa.: The Barnes Foundation Press, 1954.
Letter, Albert C. Barnes to Paul Guillaume, March 12, 1925. Administration, Presidents' Files, Albert C. Barnes, Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.
Letters, Albert C. Barnes and Barnes Foundation staff with Harcourt Brace & Company, 1926, 1928. Administration, Presidents' Files, Albert C. Barnes, Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.
Letter, Albert C. Barnes to Laurence Buermeyer, August 5, 1926. Administration, Presidents' Files, Albert C. Barnes, Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.
Letters, Albert C. Barnes and Barnes Foundation staff with Quinn & Boden Company, 1928–1929. Administration, Presidents' Files, Albert C. Barnes, Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.
Letters, Albert C. Barnes and Barnes Foundation staff with William J. Dornan, 1946-1947. Administration, Presidents' Files, Albert C. Barnes, Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.
Letters, Barnes Foundation staff with William J. Dornan, 1954. Administration, Central File Correspondence. The Barnes Foundation Archives, Merion, Pennsylvania.


Scope and Content

This collection consists of manuscript, typescript, carbon copy, and printed text drafts, galley proofs, and page proofs for the first edition of Art and Education, published by the Barnes Foundation Press. Because the essays comprising Art and Education had been previously published, most drafts for the first edition are in the form of corrected printed text taken from the original journals or books. The essays are by Albert C. Barnes, Laurence Buermeyer, Violette de Mazia, John Dewey, Paul Guillaume, Thomas Munro, and Mary Mullen, and are frequently corrected by Barnes, Buermeyer, de Mazia, and Mullen. A series of page proofs of the front matter, including the table of contents, attests to the last minute rearrangement and selection of the essays in the final text. The second edition is documented by two sets of page proofs, corrected by Violette de Mazia. There are no extant drafts or proofs of the third edition, although some related correspondence may be found in another collection, Central File Correspondence.


Subject Terms

Personal Names:

Barnes, Albert C. (Coombs), 1872–1951
Buermeyer, Laurence, 1889-1970
De Mazia, Violette, 1899-1988
Dewey, John, 1859–1952
Guillaume, Paul, 1891–1934
Mullen, Mary, dd. 1957
Munro, Thomas, 1897-

Institutions:

Barnes Foundation
Quinn & Boden Company
William J. Dornan

Subjects:

Aesthetics
Art – Study and teaching
Education – Philosophy
Manuscripts
Painting
Painting – History
Visual literacy

Places:

Lower Merion (Pa.: Township)
Philadelphia (Pa.)

Form and Genre Terms:

Carbon copies
Dummies (printed matter)
Galley proofs
Manuscripts for publication
Page proofs
Typescripts


Inventory

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

Series I. First edition
Dates: 1925-1929
Extent: 4.5 linear feet
Arrangement:
Within each edition, material is arranged chronologically from earliest drafts to page proofs. Within these chronological stages, chapters are generally arranged in the order of the final printed text.



Subseries 1. First edition, earlier drafts

Folder Title Date Extent Folder Notes
"Experience, Nature and Art." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by John Dewey from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Roots of Art and the Problem of Appreciation." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Albert C. Barnes from The Art in Painting, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Art as Creative." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Laurence Buermeyer from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Art and the Ivory Tower." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Laurence Buermeyer from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Mysticism and Art." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Laurence Buermeyer from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Buermeyer and Mary Mullen.
"Art and Day-dreaming." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Laurence Buermeyer from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen for use in Art and Education.
"Affective Thought in Logic and Painting." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by John Dewey from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Plastic Form." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Albert C. Barnes from The Art in Painting, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Pattern and Plastic Form." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Laurence Buermeyer from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Buermeyer and Mary Mullen.
"Continuity of Traditions in Painting." Draft, typescript, corrected circa 1927-1929 1 Folder(s) Translation of an article by Violette de Mazia, "L'art Ancien à la Fondation Barnes," from Les Arts à Paris, corrected by de Mazia.
"Dürer and Holbein." Draft, dummies, corrected circa 1928-1929 1 Folder(s) Galley proofs by Albert C. Barnes from The Art in Painting, made into dummies and corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Modern and Contemporary Painting." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Albert C. Barnes from The Art in Painting and the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Primitive Negro Sculpture and Modern Art." Draft, carbon copies, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Draft by Paul Guillaume, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Method and Design." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Albert C. Barnes from The Art in Painting, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Learning to See." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Mary Mullen from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected.
"The Essential Problem of Plastic Criticism." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Mary Mullen from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mullen and Violette de Mazia.
"An Experience Studying Paintings." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Mary Mullen from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected.
"A Constructive Program for Teaching Art." Draft, printed text, corrected, and manuscript circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Thomas Munro from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"College Art Instruction : Its Failure and a Remedy." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Thomas Munro from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Construction and Controversy - foreword." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Albert C. Barnes from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"The Aesthetics of Frank Jewett Mather." Draft, carbon copies, corrected circa 1928-1929 1 Folder(s) Draft by Albert C. Barnes, with corrections by Mary Mullen.
"The Aesthetics of Roger Fry." Draft, carbon copies, corrected circa 1924-1929 1 Folder(s) Draft by Laurence Buermeyer, with corrections by Buermeyer and Mary Mullen.
"Art Teaching That Obstructs Education." Draft, printed text, corrected, and manuscript circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Albert C. Barnes from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Frank Cizek and the Free Expression Method." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Thomas Munro from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"Art Academies and Modern Education." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Thomas Munro from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen.
"The Dow Method and Public School Art." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1926-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Thomas Munro from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Mary Mullen and Laurence Buermeyer.
"The Graphic Sketch Club and Art Education." Draft, printed text, corrected circa 1925-1929 1 Folder(s) Printed text by Laurence Buermeyer from the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected by Buermeyer and Mary Mullen.
"Earlier draft." Draft, manuscript, typescript, carbon copies, galley proofs, dummies, and printed text, corrected circa 1924-1929 1 Box Corrections by Dr. Barnes, Mary Mullen, and Violette de Mazia. Complete except for preface. Printed text from The Art in Painting and the Journal of The Barnes Foundation.



Subseries 2. First edition, later drafts

Folder Title Date Extent Folder Notes
"Preface." Draft, carbon copies 1929 1 Folder(s)
"Preface." Draft, typescript and carbon copies, corrected 1929 1 Folder(s) Draft by Laurence Buermeyer, with corrections by Dr. Barnes and Mary Mullen. Includes annotated envelope.
"Front matter and Preface." Drafts, manuscript, typescript, and page proofs, corrected. 1929 3 Folder(s) Includes several different versions of the title pages, table of contents, and preface, corrected by Mary Mullen, with printer's marks. Original order has been maintained.
"Continuity of Traditions in Painting." Draft, typescript circa 1927-1929 1 Folder(s) Translation of an article by Violette de Mazia, "L'art Ancien à la Fondation Barnes," from Les Arts à Paris, adapted by de Mazia for use in Art and Education.
"Later draft." Draft, typescript, carbon copies, galley proofs, dummies, and printed text, corrected circa 1924-1929 1 Box Corrections by Mary Mullen and Violette de Mazia. Printed text from The Art in Painting and the Journal of The Barnes Foundation, corrected.



Subseries 3. First edition, galley proofs

Folder Title Date Extent Folder Notes
"The Essential Problem of Plastic Criticism." Galley proofs, corrected January 25, 1929 Includes instructions to omit this essay from the final text.
Galley proofs, corrected January 1929 Corrections by Laurence Buermeyer.
Galley proofs, corrected January 1929 Corrections by Dr. Barnes, Violette de Mazia, and Mary Mullen. Proofs have been cut, pasted, and rearranged.
Galley proofs, corrected January 1929 Corrections by Violette de Mazia and Mary Mullen. Proofs have been cut, pasted, and rearranged.



Subseries 4. First edition, page proofs

Folder Title Date Extent Folder Notes
"Front matter." Page proofs, corrected, and manuscript 1929 1 Folder(s) Includes manuscript table of contents with word counts, and calculator tape.
"Front matter, Experience, Nature, and Art." Page proofs, corrected, incomplete January 21, 1929 1 Folder(s) Corrections by Mary Mullen.
"Title pages, Experience, Nature and Art." Page proofs, corrected, incomplete, typescript, and manuscript 1929 1 Folder(s) Corrections by Mary Mullen.
"Front matter and title pages." Page proofs, corrected 1929 1 Folder(s)
"Front matter, Preface." Page proofs, corrected February 14, 1929 1 Folder(s) Corrections by Mary Mullen.
Cut and uncut page proofs, incomplete 1929
Page proofs, corrected 1929 1 Folder(s) Corrections by Violette de Mazia.
Page proofs, corrected 1929 1 Folder(s) Corrections by Mary Mullen.
Series II. Second edition
Dates: 1947
Extent: .5 linear feet
Arrangement:
This series is arranged in two subseries: 1. Page proofs; 2. Publicity materials.



Subseries 1. Page proofs

Note: These page proofs consist of identical printings that differ only in the corrections applied to them by members of the Barnes Foundation staff. The first set contains a few corrections in an unidentified hand, and the second set contains more numerous corrections by Violette de Mazia.
Folder Title Date Extent Folder Notes
Page proofs, corrected 1947 1 Box
Page proofs, corrected 1947 1 Box Corrections by Violette de Mazia.



Subseries 2. Publicity materials

Folder Title Date Extent Folder Notes
"Announcement of publication." Draft, carbon copies, corrected January 3, 1947 1 Folder(s)