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¹ Claire Le Corbeiller, “Chantilly,” in Linda Horvitz Roth and Le Corbeiller, French Eighteenth-Century Porcelain at the Wadsworth Atheneum: The J. Pierpont Morgan Collection, exh. cat. (Hartford: Wadsworth Atheneum, 2000), 34–50.

² Philippe Parpette (Getty Museum).

³ “Parpette, Philippe,” Benezit Dictionary of Artists (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

⁴ Jean Beaudrillard, Simulacra and Simulations (1981).

⁵ See the author’s white paper for BF852, Wheelock, Botany to Bouquets (NGA, 1999), and

⁶ Barbara Baert, “Revisiting the Enclosed Gardens of the Low Countries,” Textile: Cloth and Culture 2016, 4.

⁷ Qtd. in Heather MacDonald, “Information and Illusion: Botany and Painting at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century,” in Working Among Flowers: Floral Still-Life Painting in Nineteenth-Century France, ed. eadem and Mitchel Merling (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), 3, quoting Pliny, Natural History, XXV, 8.

⁸ Leslie Brubaker, “Anicia Juliana and the Vienna Dioskorides,” in Byzantine Garden Culture, ed. Antony Littlewood, Henry Maguire, and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2002), 189–214.

⁹ See, e.g., Celia Fisher, Flowers in Medieval Manuscripts (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004).

¹⁰ MacDonald 2014, 5–12.

¹¹ Bailey 2012, 140.

¹² Joanna Ebenstein, ed., Frederick Ruysch and His Thesaurus Anatomicus: A Morbid Guide (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2022), 149.

¹³ Thesaurus Anatomicus, 151.

¹⁴ MacDonald 2014, 5–6, 9–10. Linnaeus divided plants into 24 genera based on their stamens and pistils (that is, their reproductive structures); the illustrations of Systema naturae accordingly emphasized flowers’ blossoms. MacDonald cited Michel Foucault’s characterization of Linnaeus (who vehemently opposed scientific illustration) as a paradigmatic premodern naturalist “concerned with the structure of the visible world and its denomination according to characters” (i.e., postvisual, taking place in the realm of language). But “Linnaean botany was, in practice, immersed in a field of visual and material culture” in which “the image was a privileged source, method, and product of botanical inquiry.” See Foucault, The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York: Vintage Books, 1994); Martin Kemp, “Taking It on Trust: Form and Meaning in Naturalistic Representation,” Archives of Natural History 17 (1990): 127–88.

¹⁵ See, e.g.,,, and

¹⁶ Jeannene Przyblyski, “French Still Life and Modern Painting, 1848–1876” (PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1995), 137, qtd. in MacDonald 2014, 11.

¹⁷ For Still Life (2018):